Marijuana And Multiple Sclerosis

  • A chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system, multiple sclerosis (MS), causes inflammation, muscular weakness, and a loss of motor coordination. Over a period of time, patients afflicted with the disease typically become permanently disabled and the disease could be fatal in some cases. According to the US National Multiple Sclerosis Society, nearly 200 people are diagnosed every week with the disease that often strikes those 20 to 40 years of age.

    Clinical and anecdotal reports of the ability of cannabinoids to minimize MS-related symptoms such as pain, spasticity, depression, fatigue, and incontinence are plentiful in the scientific literature. In 2008, investigators at the University of California at San Diego reported inhaled cannabis significantly reduced objective measures of pain intensity and spasticity in patients with MS in a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Investigators concluded that “smoked cannabis was superior to placebo in reducing spasticity and pain in patients with multiple sclerosis and provided some benefit beyond currently prescribed treatment.”

    It should therefore comes as no surprise that patients with multiple sclerosis typically report engaging in cannabis therapy, with one survey indicating that almost one in two MS patients use the drug therapeutically.

    Investigators at the University College of London’s Institute of Neurology, writing in the July 2003 issue of the journal Brain, reported that administration of the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 provided “significant neuroprotection” in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. “The results of this study are important because they suggest that in addition to symptom management, … cannabis may also slow the neurodegenerative processes that ultimately lead to chronic disability in multiple sclerosis and probably other disease,” researchers concluded.

    Investigators at the Netherland’s Vrije University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, also reported that oral THC could boost immune function in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    [1] Chong et al. 2006. Cannabis use in patients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis 12: 646-651.
    [2] Rog et al. 2005. Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 65: 812-819.
    [3] Wade et al. 2004. Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients. Multiple Sclerosis 10: 434-441.
    [4] Brady et al. 2004. An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis 10: 425-433.
    [5] Vaney et al. 2004. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Multiple Sclerosis 10: 417-424.
    [6] Zajicek et al. 2003. Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis: multicentre randomized placebo-controlled trial [PDF]. The Lancet 362: 1517-1526.
    [7] Page et al. 2003. Cannabis use as described by people with multiple sclerosis [PDF]. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 30: 201-205.
    [8] Wade et al. 2003. A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Clinical Rehabilitation 17: 21-29.
    [9] Consroe et al. 1997. The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis. European Journal of Neurology 38: 44-48.
    [10] Meinck et al. 1989. Effects of cannabinoids on spasticity and ataxia in multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurology 236: 120-122.
    [11] Ungerleider et al. 1987. Delta-9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis. Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse 7: 39-50.
    [12] Denis Petro. 1980. Marijuana as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasm or spasticity. Psychosomatics 21: 81-85.
    [13] Jody Corey-Bloom. 2010. Short-term effects of cannabis therapy on spasticity in multiple sclerosis. In: University of San Diego Health Sciences, Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research. Report to the Legislature and Governor of the State of California presenting findings pursuant to SB847 which created the CMCR and provided state funding. op. cit.
    [14] Clark et al. 2004. Patterns of cannabis use among patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurology 62: 2098-2010.
    [15] Reuters News Wire. August 19, 2002. “Marijuana helps MS patients alleviate pain, spasms.”
    [16] Pryce et al. 2003. Cannabinoids inhibit neurodegeneration in models of multiple sclerosis. Brain 126: 2191-2202.
    [17] Killestein et al. 2003. Immunomodulatory effects of orally administered cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neuroimmunology 137: 140-143.
    [18] Wade et al. 2006. Long-term use of a cannabis-based medicine in the treatment of spasticity and other symptoms of multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis 12: 639-645.
    [19] Rog et al. 2007. Oromucosal delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: an uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial. Clinical Therapeutics 29: 2068-2079.
    [20] Canada News Wire. June 20, 2005. “Sativex: Novel cannabis derived treatment for MS pain now available in Canada by prescription.”
    [21] Daily Finance. June 22, 2010. “U.K. approves pot-based drug.”

[22] GW Pharmaceuticals press release. July 28, 2010. ” Spanish Sativex approval.”


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