Methods In Beating A Drug Test

One of the biggest problems faced by habitual marijuana users is that they find it extremely difficult to give up the habit completely though it could have been the best way to beat marijuana drug tests. Therefore, they need to find effective and alternative ways to beat drug tests.

If you have been called for a marijuana drug test and want to save money for coming out clean, the best way is to get urine or hair sample from a friend who is not into marijuana. You can even access effective methods of passing hair and urine marijuana test by seeking the advice of an expert or use a natural cleaner or detox product, which may be easily and affordably purchased on the internet.

You may even purchase marijuana detoxification products from the nearest drug store or try out a home remedy such as intake of water and other liquids and consuming vegetables like cabbage, capsicum, broccoli, tomatoes, etc. or fruits like blue berries, cranberries, goose berries, strawberries, and acai berries that are rich in antioxidants.

Medical Marijuana And Hypertension

Hypertension, or high blood pressure, afflicts an estimated one in four American adults. The condition puts a strain on the human heart and blood vessels and considerably increases the risk of stroke and heart disease.

The endogenous cannabinoid system plays a role in regulating blood pressure as per emerging research, though its mechanism of action is not well understood. It is being demonstrated by animal studies that anandamide and other endocannabinoids profoundly suppress cardiac contractility in hypertension and may normalize blood pressure, which encourages some experts to speculate that the manipulation of the endocannabinoid system “may offer novel therapeutic approaches in a variety of cardiovascular disorders.”

On humans and laboratory animals, the administration of natural cannabinoids has yielded conflicting cardiovascular effects. The vascular response in humans administered cannabis in experimental conditions is generally characterized by a mild increase in heart rate and blood pressure. However, complete tolerance to these effects develops quickly and potential health risks appear to be minimal. In animals, the administration of cannabinoids is usually associated with vasodilation, transient bradycardia and hypotension, besides an inhibition of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) progression. Synthetic cannabinoid administration has also been shown for lowering blood pressure in animals and has not been associated with cardiotoxicity in humans.

References:
[1] Franjo Grotenhermen. 2006. Clinical pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids. In Russo et al (Eds) Handbook of Cannabis Therapeutics. Binghampton, New York: Haworth Press.
[2] Batkai et al. 2004. Endocannabinoids acting at cannabinoid-1 receptors regulate cardiovascular function in hypertension. Circulation 110: 1996-220.
[3] Pacher et al. 2005. Blood pressure regulation by endocannabinoids and their receptors (PDF). Neuropharmacology 48: 1130-1138.
[4] Ibid.
[5] Cecilia Hillard. 2000. Endocannabinoids and vascular function. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 294: 27-32.
[6] Kunos et al. 2000. Endocannabinoids as cardiovascular modulators. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 108: 159-168.
[7] Reese Jones. 2002. Cardiovascular system effects of marijuana. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 42: 58-63.
[8] Ribuot et al. 2005. Cardiac and vascular effects of cannabinoids: toward a therapeutic use? Annales de Cardiologie et d’Angeiologie (France) 54: 89-96.
[9] Steven Karch. 2006. Cannabis and cardiotoxicity. Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology. 2: 13-18.
[10] Ibid.
[11] Rodondi et al. 2006. Marijuana use, diet, body mass index and cardiovascular risk factors. American Journal of Cardiology 98: 478-484.
[12] Reese Jones. 2002. op. cit.
[13] Steffens and Mach. 2006. Towards a therapeutic use of selective CB2 cannabinoid receptor ligands for atherosclerosis. Future Cardiology 2: 49-53.
[14] Steffens et al. 2005. Low dose oral cannabinoid therapy reduces progression of atherosclerosis in mice. Nature 434: 782-786.
[15] Steffens and Mach. 2006. Cannabinoid receptors in atherosclerosis. Current Opinion in Lipidology 17: 519-526.
[16] Steven Karch. 2006. op. cit.
[17]Francois Mach. 2006. New anti-inflammatory agents to reduce atherosclerosis. Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry 112: 130-137.

Reduction in NY City’s Marijuana Arrests

The shift away from arresting minor marijuana offenders in New York City, which was announced as a “clarification” on September 19, 2011 by New York Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly, appears to be having the expected effect.

Before the announcement, city police were arresting those with small amounts of marijuana in their possession on a regular basis although state law defines the private possession of less than an ounce of marijuana is a $100 civil fine.

In 2010, he New York City Police Department arrested 50,383 people for low-level marijuana offenses according to the figures released by the New York Division of Criminal Justice Services.

According to department data released, arrests for low-level marijuana possession fell 13% in the city in the weeks after the police commissioner cautioned officers not to bust people for small amounts of the drug found in pockets or bags. It was shown by department figures that 1,190 fewer arrests were made in the nine weeks since the order, compared with the same period a year earlier.

Cannabis Smoke Exposure Not Associated With Adverse Effects On Pulmonary Function

According to recently published clinical trial data in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), exposure to moderate levels of cannabis smoke, even over the long-term, is not associated with adverse effects on pulmonary function.

The association between marijuana exposure and pulmonary function was analyzed by investigators at the University of California, San Francisco over a 20-year period in a cohort of 5,115 men and women in four US cities.

Researchers “confirmed the expected reductions in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration) and FVC (forced vital capacity)” in tobacco smokers. By contrast, “Marijuana use was associated with higher FEV1 and FVC at the low levels of exposure typical for most marijuana users. With up to 7 joint-years of lifetime exposure (e.g., 1 joint/d for 7 years or 1 joint/wk for 49 years), we found no evidence that increasing exposure to marijuana adversely affects pulmonary function.”

They conclude, “Our findings suggest that occasional use of marijuana … may not be associated with adverse consequences on pulmonary function.”

Results of the study are consistent with previous findings that reported no significant decrease in pulmonary function associated with moderate cannabis smoke exposure.
“We hypothesized that there would be a positive association between marijuana use and lung cancer, and that the association would be more positive with heavier use,” the study’s lead researcher, Dr. Donald Tashkin of the University of California at Los Angeles stated. Tashkin said he, however, did not found any association at all and even suggested of some protective effect among marijuana smokers who had lower incidences of cancer compared to non-users.

Reference:
Association between marijuana exposure and pulmonary function over 20 years-Journal of the American Medical Association

Cannabinoids Delay Huntington’s Disease Progression

According to experimental data published in The Journal of Neuroscience Research, the combined administration of the plant cannabinoids THC and CBD (cannabidiol) provide neuroprotection in rat models of Huntington’s disease (HD).

Huntington’s disease is an inherited degenerative disorder of the brain that is characterized by motor abnormalities and dementia produced by selective lesions in the cerebral cortex. Presently, there are no known conventional therapies available for alleviating HD symptoms or delaying HD-associated striatal degeneration.

An international team of investigators from Spain, Italy, and the United Kingdom assessed whether botanic extracts rich in THC and CBD can delay the progress of the disease in laboratory animals. Authors reported, “Our data demonstrates that a [one to one] combination of THC and CBD-enriched botanical extracts protected striatal neurons against … toxicity.” By contrast, the administration of individual, selective synthetic cannabinoid agonists did not produce similarly favorable outcomes.

Investigators concluded, “In our opinion, these data provide sufficient preclinical evidence to justify a clinical evaluation of [one to one THC to CBD] cannabis-based medicine … as a neuroprotective agent capable of delaying disease progression in patients affected by HD, a disorder that is currently poorly managed in the clinic, prompting an urgent need for clinical trials with agents showing positive results in preclinical studies.”

Reference:
Neuroprotective effects of Phytocannabinoid-based medicines in experimental models of Huntington’s Disease-The Journal of Neuroscience Research

Study Found Marijuana Does Not Harm Lung Function

Smoking a joint once a week or a bit more apparently does not harm the lungs, according to the results of a 20-year study that suggests that marijuana does not damage the body as tobacco does.

The results, from one of the largest and longest studies on the health effects of marijuana, suggest that marijuana use might cause a decline in lung function for heavy users. The authors recommended “caution and moderation when marijuana use is considered.”

The Journal of the American Medical Association released the study on Tuesday by researchers at the University of California, San Francisco, and the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

The findings echo results in some smaller studies of the past that demonstrated marijuana does not carry the same risks for lung disease as tobacco.
Dr. Donald Tashkin, a marijuana researcher and an emeritus professor of medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, said THC, the main active ingredient in marijuana, helps fight inflammation and may counteract the effects of more irritating chemicals in the drug. Tashkin was not involved in the new study.

Study co-author Dr. Stefan Kertesz, a drug abuse researcher and preventive medicine specialist at the Alabama University, said users of marijuana tend to breathe in deeply when they inhale a joint that may strengthen lung tissue.

Data from participants in a 20-year federally funded health study in young adults that began in 1985 was analyzed by study authors; the analysis was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The study randomly enrolled 5,115 men and women aged 18 through 30 in Birmingham, Chicago, Oakland, California, and Minneapolis. Roughly equal numbers of whites and blacks took part and participants were asked about recent marijuana or cigarette use on a regular basis and had several lung function tests during the study.

Overall, about 37 percent reported at least occasional use of marijuana and most users also reported having smoked cigarettes. Seventeen percent of the participants said they did smoked cigarettes but no marijuana and those results are similar to national estimates.

Kertesz said cigarette users smoked about 9 cigarettes daily on an average, while average marijuana use was only a joint or two a few times a month on an average. The effects of tobacco and marijuana were calculated by the authors separately, both in people who used only one or the other, and in people who used both. The authors also considered other factors that could influence lung function, including air pollution in cities.

It was revealed that cigarettes harm lung function, and pot didn’t. The test scores of cigarette smokers worsened steadily during the study. On the other hand, marijuana smoking as often as one joint daily for seven years or one joint weekly for 20 years was not linked with worse scores.

References:
National Institute on Drug Abuse

Medical Marijuana And Pruritus

Pruritus or itching is a common symptom associated with many skin diseases, and is also considered as a secondary symptom of numerous serious complications like liver disease and renal failure. Unlike other skin sensations, pruritus is usually a result of CNS activities and typically goes untreated by standard medical therapies.

A review of the scientific literature revealed three clinical trials investigating the use of cannabinoids in the treatment of pruritus. Investigators from the University Of Miami Department Of Medicine, writing in the August 2002 issue of the American Journal of Gastroentrology, reported successful treatment of pruritus with 5 mg of THC in three patients with cholestatic liver disease. Subjects had failed to respond to standard medications prior to cannabinoid therapy and had lost their ability to work. Following evening cannabinoid administration, all three patients reported a decrease in pruritus and “marked improvement” in sleep and were eventually able to return to work. It was also found that the resolution of depression was also reported in two out of three subjects. “Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol may be an effective alternative in patients with intractable cholestatic pruritus,” investigators concluded.

In 2003, British researchers reported in the issue of the journal Inflammation Research that the peripheral administration of the synthetic cannabinoid agonist HU-211 significantly minimized experimentally-induced itch in 12 subjects.

Most recently, researchers at Wroclaw, Poland’s University of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, reported that the application of an endocannabinoid-based topical cream minimized remic pruritus and xerosis (abnormal dryness of the skin) in hemodialysis patients. Three weeks of twice-daily application of this cream “completely eliminated” pruritus in 38 percent of trial subjects and “significantly reduced” itching in others.

Some dermatology experts, in light of these encouraging preliminary results, now believe that cannabinoids and the cannabinoid system may represent “promising new avenues for managing itch more effectively.”

References:
[1] Neff et al. 2002. Preliminary observation with dronabinol in patients with intractable pruritus secondary to cholestatic liver disease. American Journal of Gastroenterology 97: 2117-2119.
[2] Dvorak et al. 2003. Histamine induced responses are attenuated by a cannabinoid receptor agonist in human skin (PDF). Inflammation Research 25: 238-245.
[3] Dvorak et al. 2003. Cannabinoid agonists attenuate capsaicin-induced responses in human skin. Pain 102: 283-288.
[4] Szepietowski et al. 2005. Efficacy and tolerance of the cream containing structured physiological lipid endocannabinoids in the treatment of uremic pruritus: a preliminary study. Acta Dermatovenerologic Croatica (Croatia) 13: 97-103.
[5] Paus et al. 2006. Frontiers in pruritus research: scratching the brain for more effective itch therapy. Journal of Clinical Investigation 116: 1174-1185.

Medical Marijuana And Human Immunodeficiency Virus

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that invades cells in the immune system of human beings, making it highly susceptible to infectious diseases. Over 500,000 Americans have died from HIV/AIDS and over one million US citizens are living with the disease, according to the World Health Organization.

Survey data suggests that cannabis is used by as many as one in three patients from North America with HIV/AIDS for treating symptoms of the disease as well as the side-effects of various antiretroviral medications. It was reported by a recent study that more than 60 percent of HIV/AIDS patients self-identify as “medical cannabis users.”

Patients suffering with HIV/AIDS most frequently report using cannabis for countering symptoms of anxiety, nausea, and appetite loss. At least one study has reported that patients who use cannabis therapeutically are 3.3 times more likely to adhere to their antiretroviral therapy regimens than non-cannabis users.

Use of cannabis does not adversely impact CD4 and CD8 T cell counts and could even improve immune function, according to clinical data.

Investigators at Columbia University published clinical trial data in 2007 and reported that HIV/AIDS patients who inhaled cannabis four times daily experienced “substantial … increases in food intake … with little evidence of discomfort and no impairment of cognitive performance.” They concluded, “Smoked marijuana … has a clear medical benefit in HIV-positive [subjects].”

In the same year, it was reported by investigators at San Francisco General Hospital and the University of California’s Pain Clinical Research Center in the journal Neurology that HIV-associated neuropathy is significantly reduced with inhaling cannabis compared to placebo. It was reported by researchers that inhaling cannabis three times daily reduced patients’ pain by 34 percent. They concluded, “Smoked cannabis was well tolerated and effectively relieved chronic neuropathic pain from HIV-associated neuropathy [in a manner] similar to oral drugs used for chronic neuropathic pain.”

Researchers at the University of California at San Diego reported similar finding while writing in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology in 2008. They concluded: “Smoked cannabis … significantly reduced neuropathic pain intensity in HIV-associated … polyneuropathy compared to placebo, when added to stable concomitant analgesics. … Mood disturbance, physical disability and quality of life all improved significantly during study treatment. … Our findings suggest that cannabinoid therapy may be an effective option for pain relief in patients with medically intractable pain due to HIV.”
Many experts, as a result, now believe that “marijuana represents another treatment option in [the] health management” of patients with HIV/AIDS.

References:
[1] Woolridge et al. 2005. Cannabis use in HIV for pain and other medical symptoms. Journal of Pain Symptom Management 29: 358-367.
[2] Prentiss et al. 2004. Patterns of marijuana use among patients with HIV/AIDS followed in a public health care setting [PDF]. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 35: 38-45.
[3] Braitstein et al. 2001. Mary-Jane and her patients: sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of HIV-positive individuals using medical marijuana and antiretroviral agents. AIDS 12: 532-533.
[4] Ware et al. 2003. Cannabis use by persons living with HIV/AIDS: patterns and prevalence of use. Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics 3: 3-15.
[5] Belle-Isle and Hathaway. 2007. Barriers to access to medical cannabis for Canadians living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Care 19: 500-506.
[6] de Jong et al. 2005. Marijuana use and its association with adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons with moderate to severe nausea. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 38: 43-46.
[7] Chao et al. 2008. Recreational drug use and T lymphocyte subpopulations in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected men. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 94:165-171.
[8] Rachiel Schrier. 2010. Effects of medicinal cannabis on CD4 immunity in AIDS. In: University of San Diego Health Sciences, Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research. Report to the Legislature and Governor of the State of California presenting findings pursuant to SB847 which created the CMCR and provided state funding. op. cit.
[9] Abrams et al.2003. Short-term effects of cannabinoids in patients with HIV-1 infection: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 139: 258-266.
[10] Fogarty et al. 2007. Marijuana as therapy for people living with HIV/AIDS: social and health aspects 19: 295-301.
[11] Haney et al. 2007. Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers: caloric intake, mood and sleep. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 45: 545-554.
[12] Abrams et al. 2007. Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.
[13] Ellis et al. 2008. Smoked medicinal cannabis for neuropathic pain in HIV: a randomized, crossover clinical trial. op. cit.
[14] Fogarty et al. 2007. op. cit.

Inhaled Cannabis Modulates Appetite Hormones In HIV Patients

According to clinical trial data published online in the scientific journal Brain Research, cannabis inhalation is associated with increased levels of appetite hormones in the blood of subjects with HIV infection.

The effects of inhaled cannabis on the appetite hormones ghrelin, leptin and peptide YY (PYY), as well as insulin, in adult subjects with HIV were assessed by investigators at the University of California, San Diego and the Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research. Insulin, ghrelin, PYY, and leptin are hormones individually modulated in response to intake of food and energy homeostasis.

Researchers reported: “Compared to placebo, cannabis administration was associated with significant increases in plasma levels of ghrelin and leptin, and decreases in PYY, but did not significantly influence insulin levels. … Cannabis-related changes in these hormones had a magnitude similar to what has been observed with food intake over the course of a day in normal volunteers, suggesting physiological relevance.”
They concluded, “These findings support further evaluations of interventions directed at manipulating the endocannabinoid system for the treatment of eating disorders and obesity.”

Reference:
A pilot study of the effects of cannabis on appetite hormones in HIV-infected adult men-Brain Research

Medical Marijuana And Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is a disease characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and multiple tender points in the neck, spine, shoulders, and hips. It is a chronic pain syndrome of unknown etiology, which is often poorly controlled by standard pain medications, and afflicts an estimated 3 to 6 million Americans.

The patients of Fibromyalgia frequently self-report making the use of cannabis therapeutically for treating the disease symptoms, and physicians – where legal to do so – often recommend the use of cannabis to treat musculoskeletal disorders. There are few clinical trials, to date however, assessing the use of cannabinoids to treat the disease.

Investigators at Germany’s University of Heidelberg, writing in the July 2006 issue of the journal Current Medical Research and Opinion, evaluated the analgesic effects of oral THC in nine patients with fibromyalgia over a period of three months. The trial subjects were administered daily doses of 2.5 to 15 mg of THC and received no other pain medication during the trial. All those participants who completed the trial reported a significant reduction in daily recorded pain and electronically induced pain.

The administration of the synthetic cannabinoid nabilone significantly reduced pain in 40 subjects with fibromyalgia in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, according to a 2008 study published in The Journal of Pain. “As nabilone improved symptoms and was well-tolerated, it may be a useful adjunct for pain management in fibromyalgia,” investigators concluded. A separate 2010 trial performed at McGill University in Montreal disclosed that low doses of nabilone significantly improved sleep quality in patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia.

Previous clinical and preclinical trials have demonstrated that both naturally occurring and endogenous cannabinoids hold analgesic qualities, especially in the treatment of pain resistant to conventional pain therapies. As a result, some experts have suggested that cannabinoids are applicable for treating chronic pain conditions such as fibromyalgia, and have theorized that the disease may be associated with an underlying clinical deficiency of the endocannabinoid system.

References:
[1] Swift et al. 2005. Survey of Australians using cannabis for medical purposes. Harm Reduction Journal 4: 2-18.
[2] Ware et al. 2005. The medicinal use of cannabis in the UK: results of a nationwide survey. International Journal of Clinical Practice 59: 291-295.
[3] Dale Gieringer. 2001. Medical use of cannabis: experience in California. In: Grotenhermen and Russo (Eds). Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential. New York: Haworth Press: 153-170.
[4] Gorter et al. 2005. Medical use of cannabis in the Netherlands. Neurology 64: 917-919.
[5] Schley et al. 2006. Delta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief. Current Medical Research and Opinion 22: 1269-1276.
[6] Skrabek et al. 2008. Nabilone for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia. The Journal of Pain 9: 164-173.
[7] Ware et al. 2010. The effects of nabilone on sleep in fibromyalgia: results of a randomized controlled trial. Anesthesia and Analgesia 110: 604-610.
[8] Burns and Ineck. 2006. Cannabinoid analgesia as a potential new therapeutic option in the treatment of chronic pain. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 40: 251-260.
[9] David Secko. 2005. Analgesia through endogenous cannabinoids. CMAJ 173:
[10] Wallace et al. 2007. Dose-dependent effects of smoked cannabis on capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers. Anesthesiology 107:785-96.
[11] Cox et al. 2007. Synergy between delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine in the arthritic rat. European Journal of Pharmacology 567: 125-130.
[12] Ethan Russo. 2004. Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): Can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions? Neuroendocrinology Letters 25: 31-39.